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International Development

Undermining Access to Medicines: Comparison of Five US FTAs

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Undermining Access to Medicines: Comparison of Five US FTAs. The US government is using bilateral and regional free-trade agreements (FTAs) to impose unnecessarily stringent intellectual property standards on developing countries that go beyond World Trade Organisation (WTO) rules. These new higher standards favor the short-term commercial interests of US pharmaceutical companies, at the expense of public health in developing countries. Oxfam has analyzed a selection of key US FTAs: The provisions in these agreements go far beyond the obligations required by the WTO Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The new "TRIPS-plus" obligations in the FTAs close off the public health safeguards available to WTO members under TRIPs and will restrict access to affordable medicines in developing countries.

 

By Oxfam America, US.

International Development Policy Resource.


Weathering the Storm: Lessons in Risk Reduction from Cuba

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Weathering the Storm: Lessons in Risk Reduction from Cuba. Cuba is a case study in successful disaster risk reduction. At the national level, Cuba's disaster legislation, public education on disasters, meteorological research, early warning system, effective communication system for emergencies, comprehensive emergency plan, and Civil Defense structure are important resources in avoiding disaster. At the local level, high levels of literacy, developed infrastructure in rural areas and access to reliable health care are crucial for national efforts in disaster mitigation, preparation and response. Weathering the Storm: Lessons in Risk Reduction from Cuba presents a comprehensive overview of the Cuban model of risk reduction in disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, and explores what may be adapted from this model in other countries. The report focuses on specific recommendations for Central America. By Martha Thompson with Izaskun Gaviria.

 

By Oxfam America, US.

International Development Policy Resource.


Afghanistan Education Report Card

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Afghanistan Education Report Card. The report card (for grades 1-9) recognizes that Afghanistan has made progress in enrollment, but finds key gaps in school completion rates, policy management, quality of education and available resources. Despite the increase in school enrollment, more than half of Afghanistan's children don't attend primary school. Less than 34% of those enrolled are girls. Drop-out rates are high, particularly among girls. Of those attending primary school, only 9% go on to secondary school. Female teachers are scarce. In one province there is one female teacher for every 152 male teachers. Increasing the number of female teachers is essential to increase the enrollment of girls. HRRAC recommends that international donors honor their commitments to provide sufficient and long-term funding for Afghanistan and ensure adequate steps are taken to increase the enrollment of girls and improve the quality of education.

 

By Oxfam America, US.

International Development Policy Resource.


Targeting Small Arms

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Targeting Small Arms. One million people have been killed by small arms since the last UN conference on the issue in 2001. While the death toll rises, governments have failed to take concerted action to combat the problem. In pursuit of the "war on terror", some arms producers now supply arms to allies with poor human rights records. It is time states took effective control of small arms from the factory door to the arms affected community. They should back the call for the Arms Trade Treaty and fulfil their duty to protect their citizens.

 

By Oxfam America, US.

International Development Policy Resource.


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