While the term political Islam is now widely used in the western media and among western policymakers, there is still fairly limited formal engagement with political Islamist parties and movements in areas like the Middle East and North Africa on the part of European and North American governments. There a considerable lack of knowledge and understanding among some western policymakers about political Islam
Site Upgraded to latest version. If any issues please contact us
Welfare & Social Security
Reducing CO2 Through Excise Duties. This paper considers the distributional effects of imposing additional excise duties on energy products according to carbon content. The assumed duties escalate from 1999 to 2010 and achieve levels reducing CO2 emissions by 10 per cent below baseline by 2010 for 11 EU member states. By 2010, real personal disposable incomes are 1.6 per cent above baseline and employment is 1.2 per cent above, assuming that the change is tax-revenue-neutral. The study concludes that the changes will be weakly regressive for nearly all the member states in the study if revenues are used to reduce employers? taxes and strongly progressive if they are given back lump-sum to households. " Equity and ecotax reform in the EU: achieving a 10 per cent reduction in CO2 emissions using excise duties" by Terry Barker and Jonathan Köhler.
By Institute for Fiscal Studies, Europe.
Paying for Road Use Instead of taxes upon cars and petrol Governments could price road use. This would more precisely capture the external costs of motoring - both pollution and congestion. This report from the Commission for Integrated Transport outlines a plan to use Global Positioning System technology to charge road users while removing fuel and road taxes. The results are a predicted reduction in congestion on the roads of 44%, a reduction in journey times and a reduction in the amount of traffic by almost 5%.
More Articles ...