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Environment

Past and Future of the Kyoto Protocol

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Past and Future of the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol is the most prominent and complex global environmental agreement, consisting of differentiated greenhouse gas emission caps for industrialized countries. The Kyoto regime has an extensive institutional embedding and has introduced a set of flexible compliance instruments. A major reason why the Kyoto Protocol was realized despite widely divergent interests was that the main concerns of different nation states were met. If the Kyoto regime fails after all, because of insufficient ratification or noncompliance with targets, the consequences may be disruptive. Pessimism may spill over to other fields of environmental and/or international cooperation. The media may also magnify the impact of a failure. Government should prepare the management of such a disruption, in particular by anticipatively elaborating alternative strategies (such as a renegotiation of the Protocol, maintaining the Kyoto institutions and mechanisms, or concluding agreements with businesses) and by effectively communicating causes and consequences to the public. We recommend that the future climate policy of Dutch national government should aim at linking the climate issue to other, high-priority policy areas. Other ministries (especially economic affairs, internal affairs, and foreign affairs) should be actively involved. The necessity of an active climate policy should be well communicated to the public at large by highlighting concrete consequences of (in)action. Government should also facilitate and build proactive coalitions within the EU and other supranational fora in order to create leverage. Finally, government should make its international financial support to developing and transition countries contingent on the recipients? climate performance. By Frank Wijen and Kees Zoeteman.

 

By GLOBUS Institute for Globalization and Sustainble Development, Netherlands.

Environment Policy Resource.


Environmental Federalism in the European Union and the United States

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Environmental Federalism in the European Union and the United States. In both the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) responsibility for the making of environmental policy is divided between federal and EU institutions on one hand, and local institutions on the other. The former is comprised of the EU and the American federal government while the latter consist of state and local governments in the US, and member states and sub-national authorities in Europe. This paper explores the dynamics of federal environmental policy making in both the United States and the European Union. At what level of government are new standards initiated? Under what circumstances do state regulations become diffused to other states and/or become adopted by the central authority? Under what circumstances can or do states maintain regulations more stringent than those of other states? By David Vogel, Michael Toffel and Diahanna Post.

 

By GLOBUS Institute for Globalization and Sustainable Development, Netherlands.

Environment Policy Resource.


Culture and Sustainability - A Cross-national Study of Cultural Diversity and Environmental Prior

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Culture and Sustainability - A Cross-national Study of Cultural Diversity and Environmental Priorities among Mass Publics and Decision Makers. Environmental concerns and support for environmental protection are widely shared by publics and elites in both richer and poorer societies, Culture and Sustainability shows. Reporting on the Global Environmental Survey (GOES), held in a variety of advanced and developing countries, Culture and Sustainability examines the cultural roots of concerns of general publics and decision makers about immediate and long-term global environmental problems. It has become clear that the public is aware of environmental threats and is convinced they can help to resolve these threats. Environmental elites in richer and in poorer countries underestimate the public?s readiness to act. Culture and Sustainability demonstrates that national and international environmental policy-making can build on a sensitive and active citizenry, when only it aims to understand the citizen?s deep-rooted motivations. Culture and Sustainability clarifies the impact of these motivations. It shows that culture matters in environmental policy-making. Edited by Peter Ester, Henk Vinken, Solange Simões, Midori Aoyagi-Usui.

 

By GLOBUS Inatitute for Globalization and Sustainable Development, Brazil, Bangkok, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, Manila and the Netherlands.

Environment Policy Resource.


Globalization and Environmental Protection: A Global Governance Perspective

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Globalization and Environmental Protection: A Global Governance Perspective. "Our central argument is that to maximize globalization?s potential for good across the world requires a fundamental reform of global governance structures in general and the international architecture for environmental cooperation in particular." So argue Daniel Esty and Maria Ivanova.

 

By GLOBUS Institute for Globalization and Sustainable Development, Netherlands.

Environment Policy Resource.